Communications in Combinatorics and OptimizationCommunications in Combinatorics and Optimization
http://comb-opt.azaruniv.ac.ir/
Thu, 23 May 2019 17:45:07 +0100FeedCreatorCommunications in Combinatorics and Optimization
http://comb-opt.azaruniv.ac.ir/
Feed provided by Communications in Combinatorics and Optimization. Click to visit.Strong Alliances in Graphs
http://comb-opt.azaruniv.ac.ir/article_13785_2275.html
For any simple connected graph $G=(V,E)$, a defensive alliance is a subset $S$ of $V$ satisfying the condition that every vertex $vin S$ has at most one more neighbour in $V-S$ than it has in $S$. The minimum cardinality of any defensive alliance in $G$ is called the alliance number of $G$, denoted $a(G)$. In this paper, we introduce a new type of alliance number called $k$-strong alliance number and its varieties. The bounds for 1-strong alliance number in terms of different graphical parameters are determined and the characterizations of graphs with 1-strong alliance number 1, 2, and $n$ are obtained.Fri, 31 May 2019 19:30:00 +0100A characterization of trees with equal Roman 2-domination and Roman domination numbers
http://comb-opt.azaruniv.ac.ir/article_13850_0.html
Given a graph $G=(V,E)$ and a vertex $v in V$, by $N(v)$ we represent the open neighbourhood of $v$. Let $f:Vrightarrow {0,1,2}$ be a function on $G$. The weight of $f$ is $omega(f)=sum_{vin V}f(v)$ and let $V_i={vin V colon f(v)=i}$, for $i=0,1,2$. The function $f$ is said to bebegin{itemize}item a Roman ${2}$-dominating function, if for every vertex $vin V_0$, $sum_{uin N(v)}f(u)geq 2$. The Roman ${2}$-domination number, denoted by $gamma_{{R2}}(G)$, is the minimum weight among all Roman ${2}$-dominating functions on $G$;item a Roman dominating function, if for every vertex $vin V_0$ there exists $uin N(v)cap V_2$. The Roman domination number, denoted by $gamma_R(G)$, is the minimum weight among all Roman dominating functions on $G$.end{itemize}It is known that for any graph $G$, $gamma_{{R2}}(G)leq gamma_R(G)$. In this paper, we characterize the trees $T$ that satisfy the equality above.Thu, 28 Feb 2019 20:30:00 +0100New skew equienergetic oriented graphs
http://comb-opt.azaruniv.ac.ir/article_13786_2275.html
Let $S(G^{sigma})$ be the skew-adjacency matrix of the oriented graph $G^{sigma}$, which is obtained from a simple undirected graph $G$ by assigning an orientation $sigma$ to each of its edges. The skew energy of an oriented graph $G^{sigma}$ is defined as the sum of absolute values of all eigenvalues of $S(G^{sigma})$. Two oriented graphs are said to be skew equienergetic iftheir skew energies are equal. In this paper, we determine the skew spectra of some new oriented graphs. As applications, we give somenew methods to construct new non-cospectral skew equienergetic oriented graphs.Fri, 31 May 2019 19:30:00 +0100Paired-Domination Game Played in Graphs
http://comb-opt.azaruniv.ac.ir/article_13851_0.html
In this paper, we continue the study of the domination game in graphs introduced by Bre{v{s}}ar, Klav{v{z}}ar, and Rall. We study the paired-domination version of the domination game which adds a matching dimension to the game. This game is played on a graph $G$ by two players, named Dominator and Pairer. They alternately take turns choosing vertices of $G$ such that each vertex chosen by Dominator dominates at least one vertex not dominated by the vertices previously chosen, while each vertex chosen by Pairer is a vertex not previously chosen that is a neighbor of the vertex played by Dominator on his previous move. This process eventually produces a paired-dominating set of vertices of $G$; that is, a dominating set in $G$ that induces a subgraph that contains a perfect matching. Dominator wishes to minimize the number of vertices chosen, while Pairer wishes to maximize it. The game paired-domination number $gpr(G)$ of $G$ is the number of vertices chosen when Dominator starts the game and both players play optimally. Let $G$ be a graph on $n$ vertices with minimum degree at least~$2$. We show that $gpr(G) le frac{4}{5}n$, and this bound is tight. Further we show that if $G$ is $(C_4,C_5)$-free, then $gpr(G) le frac{3}{4}n$, where a graph is $(C_4,C_5)$-free if it has no induced $4$-cycle or $5$-cycle. If $G$ is $2$-connected and bipartite or if $G$ is $2$-connected and the sum of every two adjacent vertices in $G$ is at least~$5$, then we show that $gpr(G) le frac{3}{4}n$.Tue, 26 Feb 2019 20:30:00 +0100Eternal m-security subdivision numbers in graphs
http://comb-opt.azaruniv.ac.ir/article_13803_2275.html
An eternal $m$-secure set of a graph $G = (V,E)$ is aset $S_0subseteq V$ that can defend against any sequence ofsingle-vertex attacks by means of multiple-guard shifts along theedges of $G$. A suitable placement of the guards is called aneternal $m$-secure set. The eternal $m$-security number$sigma_m(G)$ is the minimum cardinality among all eternal$m$-secure sets in $G$. An edge $uvin E(G)$ is subdivided if wedelete the edge $uv$ from $G$ and add a new vertex $x$ and twoedges $ux$ and $vx$. The eternal $m$-security subdivision number${rm sd}_{sigma_m}(G)$ of a graph $G$ is the minimum cardinalityof a set of edges that must be subdivided (where each edge in $G$can be subdivided at most once) in order to increase the eternal$m$-security number of $G$. In this paper, we study the eternal$m$-security subdivision number in trees. In particular, we showthat the eternal $m$-security subdivision number of trees is atmost 2 and we characterize all trees attaining this bound.Fri, 31 May 2019 19:30:00 +0100k-Efficient partitions of graphs
http://comb-opt.azaruniv.ac.ir/article_13852_0.html
A set $S = {u_1,u_2, ldots, u_t}$ of vertices of $G$ is an efficientdominating set if every vertex of $G$ is dominated exactly once by thevertices of $S$. Letting $U_i$ denote the set of vertices dominated by $u_i$%, we note that ${U_1, U_2, ldots U_t}$ is a partition of the vertex setof $G$ and that each $U_i$ contains the vertex $u_i$ and all the vertices atdistance~1 from it in $G$. In this paper, we generalize the concept ofefficient domination by considering $k$-efficient domination partitions ofthe vertex set of $G$, where each element of the partition is a setconsisting of a vertex $u_i$ and all the vertices at distance~$d_i$ from it,where $d_i in {0,1, ldots, k}$. For any integer $k geq 0$, the $k$%-efficient domination number of $G$ equals the minimum order of a $k$%-efficient partition of $G$. We determine bounds on the $k$-efficientdomination number for general graphs, and for $k in {1,2}$, we give exactvalues for some graph families. Complexity results are also obtained.Tue, 05 Mar 2019 20:30:00 +0100On the inverse maximum perfect matching problem under the bottleneck-type Hamming distance
http://comb-opt.azaruniv.ac.ir/article_13804_2275.html
Given an undirected network G(V,A,c) and a perfect matching M of G, the inverse maximum perfect matching problem consists of modifying minimally the elements of c so that M becomes a maximum perfect matching with respect to the modified vector. In this article, we consider the inverse problem when the modifications are measured by the weighted bottleneck-type Hamming distance. We propose an algorithm based on the binary search technique for solving the problem. Our proposed algorithm has a better time complexity than the one presented in cite{Liu}. We also study the inverse assignment problem as a special case of the inverse maximum perfect matching problem in which the network is bipartite and present an efficient algorithm for solving the problem. Finally, we compare the algorithm with those presented in the literature.Fri, 31 May 2019 19:30:00 +0100t-Pancyclic Arcs in Tournaments
http://comb-opt.azaruniv.ac.ir/article_13853_0.html
Let $T$ be a non-trivial tournament. An arc is emph{$t$-pancyclic} in $T$, if it is contained in a cycle of length $ell$ for every $tleq ell leq |V(T)|$. Let $p^t(T)$ denote the number of $t$-pancyclic arcs in $T$ and $h^t(T)$ the maximum number of $t$-pancyclic arcs contained in the same Hamiltonian cycle of $T$. Moon ({em J. Combin. Inform. System Sci.}, {bf 19} (1994), 207-214) showed that $h^3(T)geq3$ for any non-trivial strong tournament $T$ and characterized the tournaments with $h^3(T)= 3$. In this paper, we generalize Moon's theorem by showing that $h^t(T)geq t$ for every $3leq tleq |V(T)|$ and characterizing the tournaments with $h^t(T)= t$. We also present all tournaments which fulfill $p^t(T)= t$.Thu, 07 Mar 2019 20:30:00 +0100The Roman domination and domatic numbers of a digraph
http://comb-opt.azaruniv.ac.ir/article_13841_2275.html
A Roman dominating function (RDF) on a digraph $D$ is a function $f: V(D)rightarrow {0,1,2}$ satisfying the condition that every vertex $v$ with $f(v)=0$ has an in-neighbor $u$ with $f(u)=2$. The weight of an RDF $f$ is the value $sum_{vin V(D)}f(v)$. The Roman domination number of a digraph $D$ is the minimum weight of an RDF on $D$. A set ${f_1,f_2,dots,f_d}$ of Roman dominating functions on $D$ with the property that $sum_{i=1}^df_i(v)le2$ for each $vin V(D)$, is called a Roman dominating family (of functions) on $D$. The maximum number of functions in a Roman dominating family on $D$ is the Roman domatic number of $D$, denoted by $d_{R}(D)$. In this paper we continue the investigation of the Roman domination number, and we initiate the study of the Roman domatic number in digraphs. We present some bounds for $d_{R}(D)$. In addition, we determine the Roman domatic number of some digraphs.Fri, 31 May 2019 19:30:00 +0100Girth, minimum degree, independence, and broadcast independence
http://comb-opt.azaruniv.ac.ir/article_13855_0.html
An independent broadcast on a connected graph $G$is a function $f:V(G)to mathbb{N}_0$such that, for every vertex $x$ of $G$, the value $f(x)$ is at most the eccentricity of $x$ in $G$,and $f(x)>0$ implies that $f(y)=0$ for every vertex $y$ of $G$ within distance at most $f(x)$ from $x$.The broadcast independence number $alpha_b(G)$ of $G$is the largest weight $sumlimits_{xin V(G)}f(x)$of an independent broadcast $f$ on $G$.It is known that $alpha(G)leq alpha_b(G)leq 4alpha(G)$for every connected graph $G$,where $alpha(G)$ is the independence number of $G$.If $G$ has girth $g$ and minimum degree $delta$,we show that $alpha_b(G)leq 2alpha(G)$provided that $ggeq 6$ and $deltageq 3$or that $ggeq 4$ and $deltageq 5$.Furthermore, we show that, for every positive integer $k$,there is a connected graph $G$ of girth at least $k$ and minimum degree at least $k$ such that $alpha_b(G)geq 2left(1-frac{1}{k}right)alpha(G)$.Our results imply that lower bounds on the girth and the minimum degreeof a connected graph $G$can lower the fraction $frac{alpha_b(G)}{alpha(G)}$from $4$ below $2$, but not any further.Thu, 14 Mar 2019 20:30:00 +0100The Italian domatic number of a digraph
http://comb-opt.azaruniv.ac.ir/article_13845_2275.html
An {em Italian dominating function} on a digraph $D$ with vertex set $V(D)$ is defined as a function$fcolon V(D)to {0, 1, 2}$ such that every vertex $vin V(D)$ with $f(v)=0$ has at least two in-neighborsassigned 1 under $f$ or one in-neighbor $w$ with $f(w)=2$. A set ${f_1,f_2,ldots,f_d}$ of distinctItalian dominating functions on $D$ with the property that $sum_{i=1}^d f_i(v)le 2$ for each $vin V(D)$,is called an {em Italian dominating family} (of functions) on $D$. The maximum number of functions in anItalian dominating family on $D$ is the {em Italian domatic number} of $D$, denoted by $d_{I}(D)$.In this paper we initiate the study of the Italian domatic number in digraphs, and we present some sharpbounds for $d_{I}(D)$. In addition, we determine the Italian domatic number of some digraphs.Fri, 31 May 2019 19:30:00 +0100On the edge-connectivity of C_4-free graphs
http://comb-opt.azaruniv.ac.ir/article_13856_0.html
Let $G$ be a connected graph of order $n$ and minimum degree $delta(G)$.The edge-connectivity $lambda(G)$ of $G$ is the minimum numberof edges whose removal renders $G$ disconnected. It is well-known that$lambda(G) leq delta(G)$,and if $lambda(G)=delta(G)$, then$G$ is said to be maximally edge-connected. A classical resultby Chartrand gives the sufficient condition $delta(G) geq frac{n-1}{2}$for a graph to be maximally edge-connected. We give lower bounds onthe edge-connectivity of graphs not containing $4$-cycles that implythat forgraphs not containing a $4$-cycle Chartrand's condition can be relaxedto $delta(G) geq sqrt{frac{n}{2}} +1$, and if the graphalso contains no $5$-cycle, or if it has girth at least six,then this condition can be relaxed further,by a factor of approximately $sqrt{2}$. We construct graphsto show that for an infinite number of values of $n$both sufficient conditions are best possible apart froma small additive constant.Thu, 14 Mar 2019 20:30:00 +0100On independent domination numbers of grid and toroidal grid directed graphs
http://comb-opt.azaruniv.ac.ir/article_13846_2275.html
A subset $S$ of vertex set $V(D)$ is an {em indpendent dominating set} of $D$ if $S$ is both an independent and a dominating set of $D$. The {em indpendent domination number}, $i(D)$ is the cardinality of the smallest independent dominating set of $D$. In this paper we calculate the independent domination number of the { em cartesian product} of two {em directed paths} $P_m$ and $P_n$ for arbitraries $m$ and $n$. Also, we calculate the independent domination number of the { em cartesian product} of two {em directed cycles} $C_m$ and $C_n$ for $m, n equiv 0 ({rm mod} 3)$, and $n equiv 0 ({rm mod} m)$. There are many values of $m$ and $n$ such that $C_m Box C_n$ does not have an independent dominating set.Fri, 31 May 2019 19:30:00 +0100Directed domination in oriented hypergraphs
http://comb-opt.azaruniv.ac.ir/article_13862_0.html
ErdH{o}s [On Sch"utte problem, Math. Gaz. 47 (1963)] proved that every tournament on $n$ vertices has a directed dominating set of at most $log (n+1)$ vertices, where $log$ is the logarithm to base $2$. He also showed that there is a tournament on $n$ vertices with no directed domination set of cardinality less than $log n - 2 log log n + 1$. This notion of directed domination number has been generalized to arbitrary graphs by Caro and Henning in [Directed domination in oriented graphs, Discrete Appl. Math. (2012) 160:7--8.]. However, the generalization to directed r-uniform hypergraphs seems to be rare. Among several results, we prove the following upper and lower bounds on $ora{Gamma}_{r-1}(H(n,r))$, the upper directed $(r-1)$-domination number of the complete $r$-uniform hypergraph on $n$ vertices $H(n,r)$, which is the main theorem of this paper:[c (ln n)^{frac{1}{r-1}} le ora{Gamma}_{r-1}(H(n,r)) le C ln n,]where $r$ is a positive integer and $c= c(r) > 0$ and $C = C(r) > 0$ are constants depending on $r$.Thu, 04 Apr 2019 19:30:00 +0100Different-Distance Sets in a Graph
http://comb-opt.azaruniv.ac.ir/article_13863_0.html
A set of vertices $S$ in a connected graph $G$ is a different-distance set if, for any vertex $w$ outside $S$, no two vertices in $S$ have the same distance to $w$.The lower and upper different-distance number of a graph are the order of a smallest, respectively largest, maximal different-distance set.We prove that a different-distance set induces either a special type of path or an independent set. We present properties of different-distance sets, and consider the different-distance numbers of paths, cycles, Cartesian products of bipartite graphs, and Cartesian products of complete graphs. We conclude with some open problems and questions.Wed, 03 Apr 2019 19:30:00 +0100On trees with equal Roman domination and outer-independent Roman domination numbers
http://comb-opt.azaruniv.ac.ir/article_13865_0.html
A Roman dominating function (RDF) on a graph $G$ is a function $f : V (G) to {0, 1, 2}$satisfying the condition that every vertex $u$ for which $f(u) = 0$ is adjacent to at least onevertex $v$ for which $f(v) = 2$. A Roman dominating function $f$ is called an outer-independentRoman dominating function (OIRDF) on $G$ if the set ${vin Vmid f(v)=0}$ is independent.The (outer-independent) Roman domination number $gamma_{R}(G)$ ($gamma_{oiR}(G)$) is the minimum weightof an RDF (OIRDF) on $G$. Clearly for any graph $G$, $gamma_{R}(G)le gamma_{oiR}(G)$. In this paper,we provide a constructive characterization of trees $T$ with $gamma_{R}(T)=gamma_{oiR}(T)$.Thu, 11 Apr 2019 19:30:00 +0100On relation between the Kirchhoff index and number of spanning trees of graph
http://comb-opt.azaruniv.ac.ir/article_13873_0.html
Let $G=(V,E)$, $V={1,2,ldots,n}$, $E={e_1,e_2,ldots,e_m}$,be a simple connected graph, with sequence of vertex degrees$Delta =d_1geq d_2geqcdotsgeq d_n=delta >0$ and Laplacian eigenvalues$mu_1geq mu_2geqcdotsgeqmu_{n-1}>mu_n=0$. Denote by $Kf(G)=nsum_{i=1}^{n-1}frac{1}{mu_i}$ and $t=t(G)=frac 1n prod_{i=1}^{n-1} mu_i$ the Kirchhoff index and number of spanning trees of $G$, respectively. In this paper we determine several lower bounds for $Kf(G)$ depending on $t(G)$ and some of the graph parameters $n$, $m$, or $Delta$.Wed, 22 May 2019 19:30:00 +0100