Communications in Combinatorics and OptimizationCommunications in Combinatorics and Optimization
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Tue, 12 Nov 2019 06:38:39 +0100FeedCreatorCommunications in Combinatorics and Optimization
http://comb-opt.azaruniv.ac.ir/
Feed provided by Communications in Combinatorics and Optimization. Click to visit.Paired-Domination Game Played in Graphs
http://comb-opt.azaruniv.ac.ir/article_13851_2275.html
In this paper, we continue the study of the domination game in graphs introduced by Bre{v{s}}ar, Klav{v{z}}ar, and Rall. We study the paired-domination version of the domination game which adds a matching dimension to the game. This game is played on a graph $G$ by two players, named Dominator and Pairer. They alternately take turns choosing vertices of $G$ such that each vertex chosen by Dominator dominates at least one vertex not dominated by the vertices previously chosen, while each vertex chosen by Pairer is a vertex not previously chosen that is a neighbor of the vertex played by Dominator on his previous move. This process eventually produces a paired-dominating set of vertices of $G$; that is, a dominating set in $G$ that induces a subgraph that contains a perfect matching. Dominator wishes to minimize the number of vertices chosen, while Pairer wishes to maximize it. The game paired-domination number $gpr(G)$ of $G$ is the number of vertices chosen when Dominator starts the game and both players play optimally. Let $G$ be a graph on $n$ vertices with minimum degree at least~$2$. We show that $gpr(G) le frac{4}{5}n$, and this bound is tight. Further we show that if $G$ is $(C_4,C_5)$-free, then $gpr(G) le frac{3}{4}n$, where a graph is $(C_4,C_5)$-free if it has no induced $4$-cycle or $5$-cycle. If $G$ is $2$-connected and bipartite or if $G$ is $2$-connected and the sum of every two adjacent vertices in $G$ is at least~$5$, then we show that $gpr(G) le frac{3}{4}n$.Sat, 30 Nov 2019 20:30:00 +0100A characterization of trees with equal Roman 2-domination and Roman domination numbers
http://comb-opt.azaruniv.ac.ir/article_13850_2275.html
Given a graph $G=(V,E)$ and a vertex $v in V$, by $N(v)$ we represent the open neighbourhood of $v$. Let $f:Vrightarrow {0,1,2}$ be a function on $G$. The weight of $f$ is $omega(f)=sum_{vin V}f(v)$ and let $V_i={vin V colon f(v)=i}$, for $i=0,1,2$. The function $f$ is said to bebegin{itemize}item a Roman ${2}$-dominating function, if for every vertex $vin V_0$, $sum_{uin N(v)}f(u)geq 2$. The Roman ${2}$-domination number, denoted by $gamma_{{R2}}(G)$, is the minimum weight among all Roman ${2}$-dominating functions on $G$;item a Roman dominating function, if for every vertex $vin V_0$ there exists $uin N(v)cap V_2$. The Roman domination number, denoted by $gamma_R(G)$, is the minimum weight among all Roman dominating functions on $G$.end{itemize}It is known that for any graph $G$, $gamma_{{R2}}(G)leq gamma_R(G)$. In this paper, we characterize the trees $T$ that satisfy the equality above.Sat, 30 Nov 2019 20:30:00 +0100k-Efficient partitions of graphs
http://comb-opt.azaruniv.ac.ir/article_13852_2275.html
A set $S = {u_1,u_2, ldots, u_t}$ of vertices of $G$ is an efficientdominating set if every vertex of $G$ is dominated exactly once by thevertices of $S$. Letting $U_i$ denote the set of vertices dominated by $u_i$%, we note that ${U_1, U_2, ldots U_t}$ is a partition of the vertex setof $G$ and that each $U_i$ contains the vertex $u_i$ and all the vertices atdistance~1 from it in $G$. In this paper, we generalize the concept ofefficient domination by considering $k$-efficient domination partitions ofthe vertex set of $G$, where each element of the partition is a setconsisting of a vertex $u_i$ and all the vertices at distance~$d_i$ from it,where $d_i in {0,1, ldots, k}$. For any integer $k geq 0$, the $k$%-efficient domination number of $G$ equals the minimum order of a $k$%-efficient partition of $G$. We determine bounds on the $k$-efficientdomination number for general graphs, and for $k in {1,2}$, we give exactvalues for some graph families. Complexity results are also obtained.Sat, 30 Nov 2019 20:30:00 +0100t-Pancyclic Arcs in Tournaments
http://comb-opt.azaruniv.ac.ir/article_13853_2275.html
Let $T$ be a non-trivial tournament. An arc is emph{$t$-pancyclic} in $T$, if it is contained in a cycle of length $ell$ for every $tleq ell leq |V(T)|$. Let $p^t(T)$ denote the number of $t$-pancyclic arcs in $T$ and $h^t(T)$ the maximum number of $t$-pancyclic arcs contained in the same Hamiltonian cycle of $T$. Moon ({em J. Combin. Inform. System Sci.}, {bf 19} (1994), 207-214) showed that $h^3(T)geq3$ for any non-trivial strong tournament $T$ and characterized the tournaments with $h^3(T)= 3$. In this paper, we generalize Moon's theorem by showing that $h^t(T)geq t$ for every $3leq tleq |V(T)|$ and characterizing the tournaments with $h^t(T)= t$. We also present all tournaments which fulfill $p^t(T)= t$.Sat, 30 Nov 2019 20:30:00 +0100Girth, minimum degree, independence, and broadcast independence
http://comb-opt.azaruniv.ac.ir/article_13855_2275.html
An independent broadcast on a connected graph $G$is a function $f:V(G)to mathbb{N}_0$such that, for every vertex $x$ of $G$, the value $f(x)$ is at most the eccentricity of $x$ in $G$,and $f(x)>0$ implies that $f(y)=0$ for every vertex $y$ of $G$ within distance at most $f(x)$ from $x$.The broadcast independence number $alpha_b(G)$ of $G$is the largest weight $sumlimits_{xin V(G)}f(x)$of an independent broadcast $f$ on $G$.It is known that $alpha(G)leq alpha_b(G)leq 4alpha(G)$for every connected graph $G$,where $alpha(G)$ is the independence number of $G$.If $G$ has girth $g$ and minimum degree $delta$,we show that $alpha_b(G)leq 2alpha(G)$provided that $ggeq 6$ and $deltageq 3$or that $ggeq 4$ and $deltageq 5$.Furthermore, we show that, for every positive integer $k$,there is a connected graph $G$ of girth at least $k$ and minimum degree at least $k$ such that $alpha_b(G)geq 2left(1-frac{1}{k}right)alpha(G)$.Our results imply that lower bounds on the girth and the minimum degreeof a connected graph $G$can lower the fraction $frac{alpha_b(G)}{alpha(G)}$from $4$ below $2$, but not any further.Sat, 30 Nov 2019 20:30:00 +0100On the edge-connectivity of C_4-free graphs
http://comb-opt.azaruniv.ac.ir/article_13856_2275.html
Let $G$ be a connected graph of order $n$ and minimum degree $delta(G)$.The edge-connectivity $lambda(G)$ of $G$ is the minimum numberof edges whose removal renders $G$ disconnected. It is well-known that$lambda(G) leq delta(G)$,and if $lambda(G)=delta(G)$, then$G$ is said to be maximally edge-connected. A classical resultby Chartrand gives the sufficient condition $delta(G) geq frac{n-1}{2}$for a graph to be maximally edge-connected. We give lower bounds onthe edge-connectivity of graphs not containing $4$-cycles that implythat forgraphs not containing a $4$-cycle Chartrand's condition can be relaxedto $delta(G) geq sqrt{frac{n}{2}} +1$, and if the graphalso contains no $5$-cycle, or if it has girth at least six,then this condition can be relaxed further,by a factor of approximately $sqrt{2}$. We construct graphsto show that for an infinite number of values of $n$both sufficient conditions are best possible apart froma small additive constant.Sat, 30 Nov 2019 20:30:00 +0100Different-Distance Sets in a Graph
http://comb-opt.azaruniv.ac.ir/article_13863_2275.html
A set of vertices $S$ in a connected graph $G$ is a different-distance set if, for any vertex $w$ outside $S$, no two vertices in $S$ have the same distance to $w$.The lower and upper different-distance number of a graph are the order of a smallest, respectively largest, maximal different-distance set.We prove that a different-distance set induces either a special type of path or an independent set. We present properties of different-distance sets, and consider the different-distance numbers of paths, cycles, Cartesian products of bipartite graphs, and Cartesian products of complete graphs. We conclude with some open problems and questions.Sat, 30 Nov 2019 20:30:00 +0100Directed domination in oriented hypergraphs
http://comb-opt.azaruniv.ac.ir/article_13862_2275.html
ErdH{o}s [On Sch"utte problem, Math. Gaz. 47 (1963)] proved that every tournament on $n$ vertices has a directed dominating set of at most $log (n+1)$ vertices, where $log$ is the logarithm to base $2$. He also showed that there is a tournament on $n$ vertices with no directed domination set of cardinality less than $log n - 2 log log n + 1$. This notion of directed domination number has been generalized to arbitrary graphs by Caro and Henning in [Directed domination in oriented graphs, Discrete Appl. Math. (2012) 160:7--8.]. However, the generalization to directed r-uniform hypergraphs seems to be rare. Among several results, we prove the following upper and lower bounds on $ora{Gamma}_{r-1}(H(n,r))$, the upper directed $(r-1)$-domination number of the complete $r$-uniform hypergraph on $n$ vertices $H(n,r)$, which is the main theorem of this paper:[c (ln n)^{frac{1}{r-1}} le ora{Gamma}_{r-1}(H(n,r)) le C ln n,]where $r$ is a positive integer and $c= c(r) > 0$ and $C = C(r) > 0$ are constants depending on $r$.Sat, 30 Nov 2019 20:30:00 +0100On trees with equal Roman domination and outer-independent Roman domination numbers
http://comb-opt.azaruniv.ac.ir/article_13865_2275.html
A Roman dominating function (RDF) on a graph $G$ is a function $f : V (G) to {0, 1, 2}$satisfying the condition that every vertex $u$ for which $f(u) = 0$ is adjacent to at least onevertex $v$ for which $f(v) = 2$. A Roman dominating function $f$ is called an outer-independentRoman dominating function (OIRDF) on $G$ if the set ${vin Vmid f(v)=0}$ is independent.The (outer-independent) Roman domination number $gamma_{R}(G)$ ($gamma_{oiR}(G)$) is the minimum weightof an RDF (OIRDF) on $G$. Clearly for any graph $G$, $gamma_{R}(G)le gamma_{oiR}(G)$. In this paper,we provide a constructive characterization of trees $T$ with $gamma_{R}(T)=gamma_{oiR}(T)$.Sat, 30 Nov 2019 20:30:00 +0100On relation between the Kirchhoff index and number of spanning trees of graph
http://comb-opt.azaruniv.ac.ir/article_13873_0.html
Let $G=(V,E)$, $V={1,2,ldots,n}$, $E={e_1,e_2,ldots,e_m}$,be a simple connected graph, with sequence of vertex degrees$Delta =d_1geq d_2geqcdotsgeq d_n=delta >0$ and Laplacian eigenvalues$mu_1geq mu_2geqcdotsgeqmu_{n-1}>mu_n=0$. Denote by $Kf(G)=nsum_{i=1}^{n-1}frac{1}{mu_i}$ and $t=t(G)=frac 1n prod_{i=1}^{n-1} mu_i$ the Kirchhoff index and number of spanning trees of $G$, respectively. In this paper we determine several lower bounds for $Kf(G)$ depending on $t(G)$ and some of the graph parameters $n$, $m$, or $Delta$.Fri, 24 May 2019 19:30:00 +0100On Hop Roman Domination in Trees
http://comb-opt.azaruniv.ac.ir/article_13874_2275.html
‎Let $G=(V,E)$ be a graph‎. ‎A subset $Ssubset V$ is a hop dominating set‎‎if every vertex outside $S$ is at distance two from a vertex of‎‎$S$‎. ‎A hop dominating set $S$ which induces a connected subgraph‎ ‎is called a connected hop dominating set of $G$‎. ‎The‎‎connected hop domination number of $G$‎, ‎$ gamma_{ch}(G)$,‎‎‎ ‎is the minimum cardinality of a connected hop‎‎dominating set of $G$‎. ‎A hop‎‎Roman dominating function (HRDF) of a graph $G$ is a function $‎‎f‎: ‎V(G)longrightarrow {0‎, ‎1‎, ‎2} $ having the property that‎‎for every vertex $ v in V $ with $ f(v) = 0 $ there is a‎‎vertex $ u $ with $ f(u)=2 $ and $ d(u,v)=2 $‎.‎The weight of‎‎an HRDF $ f $ is the sum $f(V) = sum_{vin V} f(v) $‎. ‎The‎‎minimum weight of an HRDF on $ G $ is called the hop Roman‎‎domination number of $ G $ and is denoted by $ gamma_{hR}(G)‎‎$‎. ‎We give an algorithm‎‎that decides whether $gamma_{hR}(T)=2gamma_{ch}(T)$ for a given‎‎tree $T$.‎‎{bf Keywords:} hop dominating set‎, ‎connected hop dominating set‎, ‎hop Roman dominating‎‎function‎.Sat, 30 Nov 2019 20:30:00 +0100A study on some properties of leap graphs
http://comb-opt.azaruniv.ac.ir/article_13876_0.html
In a graph G, the first and second degrees of a vertex v is equal to thenumber of their first and second neighbors and are denoted by d(v/G) andd 2 (v/G), respectively. The first, second and third leap Zagreb indices are thesum of squares of second degrees of vertices of G, the sum of products of second degrees of pairs of adjacent vertices in G and the sum of products of firstand second degrees of vertices of G, respectively. In this paper, we initiate in studying a new class of graphs depending on the relationship between firstand second degrees of vertices and is so-called a leap graph. Some propertiesof the leap graphs are presented. All leap trees and {C 3, C 4 }-free leap graphsare characterized.Tue, 11 Jun 2019 19:30:00 +0100A note on the Roman domatic number of a digraph
http://comb-opt.azaruniv.ac.ir/article_13884_0.html
Roman dominating function} on a digraph $D$ with vertex set $V(D)$ is a labeling$fcolon V(D)to {0, 1, 2}$such that every vertex with label $0$ has an in-neighbor with label $2$. A set ${f_1,f_2,ldots,f_d}$ ofRoman dominating functions on $D$ with the property that $sum_{i=1}^d f_i(v)le 2$ for each $vin V(D)$,is called a {em Roman dominating family} (of functions) on $D$. The maximum number of functions in aRoman dominating family on $D$ is the {em Roman domatic number} of $D$, denoted by $d_{R}(D)$.In this note, we study the Roman domatic number in digraphs, and we present some sharpbounds for $d_{R}(D)$. In addition, we determine the Roman domatic number of some digraphs.Some of our results are extensions of well-known properties of the Roman domatic number ofundirected graphs.Tue, 25 Jun 2019 19:30:00 +0100Total double Roman domination in graphs
http://comb-opt.azaruniv.ac.ir/article_13945_0.html
Let $G$ be a simple graph with vertex set $V$. A double Roman dominating function (DRDF) on $G$ is a function $f:Vrightarrow{0,1,2,3}$ satisfying that if $f(v)=0$, then the vertex $v$ must be adjacent to at least two vertices assigned $2$ or one vertex assigned $3$ under $f$, whereas if $f(v)=1$, then the vertex $v$ must be adjacent to at least one vertex assigned $2$ or $3$. The weight of a DRDF $f$ is the sum $sum_{vin V}f(v)$. A total double Roman dominating function (TDRDF) on a graph $G$ with no isolated vertex is a DRDF $f$ on $G$ with the additional property that the subgraph of $G$ induced by the set ${vin V:f(v)ne0}$ has no isolated vertices. The total double Roman domination number $gamma_{tdR}(G)$ is the minimum weight of a TDRDF on $G$. In this paper, we give several relations between the total double Roman domination number of a graph and other domination parameters and we determine the total double Roman domination number of some classes of graphs.Sat, 13 Jul 2019 19:30:00 +0100On the edge geodetic and edge geodetic domination numbers of a graph
http://comb-opt.azaruniv.ac.ir/article_13946_0.html
In this paper, we study both concepts of geodetic dominatingand edge geodetic dominating sets and derive some tight upper bounds onthe edge geodetic and the edge geodetic domination numbers. We also obtainattainable upper bounds on the maximum number of elements in a partitionof a vertex set of a connected graph into geodetic sets, edge geodetic sets,geodetic dominating sets and edge geodetic dominating sets, respectively.Sat, 20 Jul 2019 19:30:00 +0100The topological ordering of covering nodes
http://comb-opt.azaruniv.ac.ir/article_13958_0.html
The topological ordering algorithm sorts nodes of a directed graph such that the order of the tail of each arc is lower than the order of its head. In this paper, we introduce the notion of covering between nodes of a directed graph. Then, we apply the topological orderingalgorithm on graphs containing the covering nodes. We show that there exists a cut set withforward arcs in these graphs and the order of the covering nodes is successive.Fri, 23 Aug 2019 19:30:00 +0100Characterization of signed paths and cycles admitting minus dominating function
http://comb-opt.azaruniv.ac.ir/article_13977_0.html
If G = (V, E, σ) is a finite signed graph, a function f : V → {−1, 0, 1} is a minusdominating function (MDF) of G if f(u) +summation over all vertices v∈N(u) of σ(uv)f(v) ≥ 1 for all u ∈ V . In this paper we characterize signed paths and cycles admitting an MDF.Wed, 09 Oct 2019 20:30:00 +0100The 2-dimension of a Tree
http://comb-opt.azaruniv.ac.ir/article_13979_0.html
Let $x$ and $y$ be two distinct vertices in a connected graph $G$. The $x,y$-location of a vertex $w$ is the ordered pair of distances from $w$ to $x$ and $y$, that is, the ordered pair $(d(x,w), d(y,w))$. A set of vertices $W$ in $G$ is $x,y$-located if any two vertices in $W$ have distinct $x,y$-location.A set $W$ of vertices in $G$ is 2-located if it is $x,y$-located, for some distinct vertices $x$ and $y$. The 2-dimension of $G$ is the order of a largest set that is 2-located in $G$. Note that this notion is related to the metric dimension of a graph, but not identical to it.We study in depth the trees $T$ that have a 2-locating set, that is, have 2-dimension equal to the order of $T$. Using these results, we have a nice characterization of the 2-dimension of arbitrary trees.Mon, 14 Oct 2019 20:30:00 +0100On the super domination number of graphs
http://comb-opt.azaruniv.ac.ir/article_13980_0.html
The open neighborhood of a vertex $v$ of a graph $G$ is the set $N(v)$ consisting of all vertices adjacent to $v$ in $G$. For $Dsubseteq V(G)$, we define $overline{D}=V(G)setminus D$. A set $Dsubseteq V(G)$ is called a super dominating set of $G$ if for every vertex $uin overline{D}$, there exists $vin D$ such that $N(v)cap overline{D}={u}$. The super domination number of $G$ is the minimum cardinality among all super dominating sets of $G$. In this paper, we obtain closed formulas and tight bounds for the super domination number of $G$ in terms of several invariants of $G$. We also obtain results on the super domination number of corona product graphs and Cartesian product graphs.Sat, 26 Oct 2019 20:30:00 +0100Some new bounds on the general sum--connectivity index
http://comb-opt.azaruniv.ac.ir/article_13987_0.html
Let $G=(V,E)$ be a simple connectedgraph with $n$ vertices, $m$ edges and sequence of vertex degrees$d_1 ge d_2 ge cdots ge d_n>0$, $d_i=d(v_i)$, where $v_iin V$. With $isim j$ we denote adjacency ofvertices $v_i$ and $v_j$. The generalsum--connectivity index of graph is defined as $chi_{alpha}(G)=sum_{isim j}(d_i+d_j)^{alpha}$, where $alpha$ is an arbitrary realnumber. In this paper we determine relations between $chi_{alpha+beta}(G)$ and $chi_{alpha+beta-1}(G)$, where $alpha$ and $beta$ are arbitrary real numbers, and obtain new bounds for $chi_{alpha}(G)$. Also, by the appropriate choice of parameters $alpha$ and $beta$, we obtain a number of old/new inequalities for different vertex--degree--based topological indices.Thu, 07 Nov 2019 20:30:00 +0100Weak signed Roman domination in graphs
http://comb-opt.azaruniv.ac.ir/article_13989_0.html
A {em weak signed Roman dominating function} (WSRDF) of a graph $G$ with vertex set $V(G)$ is defined as afunction $f:V(G)rightarrow{-1,1,2}$ having the property that $sum_{xin N[v]}f(x)ge 1$ for each $vin V(G)$, where $N[v]$ is theclosed neighborhood of $v$. The weight of a WSRDF is the sum of its function values over all vertices.The weak signed Roman domination number of $G$, denoted by $gamma_{wsR}(G)$, is the minimum weight of a WSRDF in $G$.We initiate the study of the weak signed Roman domination number, and we present different sharp bounds on $gamma_{wsR}(G)$.In addition, we determine the weak signed Roman domination number of some classes of graphs.Tue, 12 Nov 2019 20:30:00 +0100