Document Type : Original paper
Department of Mathematics Wingate University Wingate NC USA
School of Computing Clemson University Clemson, SC U.S.A.
Let $x$ and $y$ be two distinct vertices in a connected graph $G$. The $x,y$-location of a vertex $w$ is the ordered pair of distances from $w$ to $x$ and $y$, that is, the ordered pair $(d(x,w), d(y,w))$. A set of vertices $W$ in $G$ is $x,y$-located if any two vertices in $W$ have distinct $x,y$-location.
A set $W$ of vertices in $G$ is 2-located if it is $x,y$-located, for some distinct vertices $x$ and $y$. The 2-dimension of $G$ is the order of a largest set that is 2-located in $G$. Note that this notion is related to the metric dimension of a graph, but not identical to it.
We study in depth the trees $T$ that have a 2-locating set, that is, have 2-dimension equal to the order of $T$. Using these results, we have a nice characterization of the 2-dimension of arbitrary trees.